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Madaxdii Adduunka: Qarniyada 20aad & 21aad:
Daabaco Boggan | Print

Nelson Mondela

Waa Barnaamij Taxane noqon doona oo ku soo bixi doona Saxaafadda, waxaanu si gaar ah diiradda u saari doona Madaxdii Adduunka soo martay qarnigii 20-naad ilaa qarnigani aynu ku jira ee 21-aad, Hogaamiyayaashii caalamka taariikhda weyn ku reebay, iyo kuwii tiifta iyo raadadka xun ku reebay, Taariikhdu akhristow iyada is xaradha eh, waxaan jeclaaday akhristayaasha afka Soomaaliga ku hadla inay ila wadaagaan qormooyinkani oo aan ugu magac daray Maxaad ka taqaan Hogaamiyayaasha Aduunka?

Qormadani oo noqon doonta tii ugu horaysay ee aan ku soo saaro Saxaafadda Afka Soomaaliga waxaan ku horaysiin doona Geesiga weyn ee qaaradda Africa Madaxweynahii hore ee dalka Koonfur Africa Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, oo noqday geesigii, Mucjisadii qarniga 20-naad, waxaan jecelahay inaan guud mar ku sameeyo Taariikh nololeedkiisa,ka qayb qaadashadiisi siyaasadda Koonfur afrika, iyo Waayahiisi xabsiga uu ku jiray.

WAA KUMA NELSON ROLIHLAHLA MANDELA?

  
Nelson Mandela Geesiga qaaradda Africa iyo Koonfur africa  iyo weliba wajiga qarniga 20-naad ilaa 21-naad

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, balse dadka badankii u yaqaanan ama ugu dhawaaqaan Magaciisa Nelson Mandela ama aan idhaahde Mandela Wuxuu ku dhashay Magaalada yar ee la yidhaahdo Qanu ee ku taalla gobolka Transkei 18, July 1918-kii, Aabahii magaciisa waxaa la odhan jiray Hendry Mphakanyiswa Mandela, Aabahii Hendry wuxuu ahaa caaqilka Qabiilka Mvezo oo dega magaalo dhereedka ku taalla daanta webiga Mbashe, Rolihlahla Mandela wuxuu noqday qofkii ugu horeeyey ee ka tirsan qoyska reer Mandela ee ku biira Dugsi waxbarasho isaga oo wakhtigaasi da'diisu ahayd 7 Sanno jir, intii uu baranaayey Dugsiga hoose ayaa waxaa loo bixiyey Magaca Nelson oo ah Magac Ingiriisi ah oo uu u baxshay Macalinkiisa oo bari jiray diinta kiristaanka Mad-habta Protestant-ka ee Methodism-ka, Aabahii Hendry Mandela wuxuu geeriyooday isaga oo toban sanno Jir ah, dabadeed Mandela wuxuu ku biiray iskuul kiniisadeed la odhan jiray Wesleyan Mission School oo ku dhegsana qasriga caanka ah ee la yidhaahdo Palace Regent, Markay da'diisu ahayd 16 sanno ayuu ku biiray dugsiga Hoyga leh ee Clarkebury "Clarkebury boarding School" Wuxuuna ka bartay Kulliyadda dhaqanka reer Galbeedka "Western Culture" Wuxuuna dugsigaasi ka qaatay shahaado Dhexe oo uu waday muddo laba sannadood ah "two years junior certificate".

Markay da'diisu ahayd 19 Jir wuxuu Mandela u guuray Kuuliyadda Wesleyan "Wesleyan college" oo ku taallay magaalada Fort Beaufort, kulliyadaasi oo ku caan ahayd inay bartaan dadka dabaqadda sare ka soo jeeda oo ah Cadaankii tirada yara balse Maal-qabeenka u badna, wuxuuna Kulliyadaasi ka qaatay tababaro Feedhka iyo orodka ah, waxaanu uga sii gudbay Jaamacadda weyn ee Fort, "Fort University" halkaasi oo uu ka qaatay Shahaado sare oo cilmiga edabiga ah "Bachelor of Arts" intii uu joogay Jaamacadda Fort waxay Saaxiib ku noqdeen Oliver Tambo oo ahaa Saaxiib weyn oo Mandela Maantadani kaga yaalla meel weyn.

Sannadkii ugu horeeyey ee Jaamacadda Fort University ayaa wuxuu ka qayb gallay Nelson Mandela waxbarasho joojin iyo Mudaharaad uu isagu hogaaminaayey oo ay ardaydu waagaasi kaga codsanaysay Maamulka jaamacadda Fort inay waxka bedel ku samayso Siyaasadaheeda iyo nidaamkeeda Maamul, balse dhamaadkii Sannadkii ugu horeeyey ayaa laga eryey Jaamacadda Fort, waxaana Maamulka Jaamacadda fort ay Nelson Mandela u wareejiyeen Jaamacadda kale South Africa "the University of South Africa" oo ku taallay magaalada Johannesburg, wuxuuna Shahaadadiisi sare ee B.A  ka dhamaystay Jaamacadda South Africa (Unisa), Dabadeedna wuxuu ka bilaabay cilmiga sharciga, jaamacadda sharciga ee Wits "Wits Law University" oo ku taalla magaalada Johannesburg.

SOO KORITAANKII SAAXADDA SIYAASADDA IYO NELSON MANDELA

Nelson Mandela isaga oo ah Arday Barta cilmiga Sharciga ayuu wuxuu toos go'aan ugu gaadhay inuu ku lug yeesho Siyaasadda waddankiisa Koonfur Afrika, Wakhtigaasi oo Cadaankii Tirada yara ay gacanta ku hayeen dhammaan ilaha Muhiimka ah ee dalka Koonfur africa hadday noqoto Maamulka sare, dhaqaalaha, ilaha bulshada iyo qayb kasta oo ka tirsan jaran jarooyinka dalka Koonfur afrika, iyadoo Madawgii tirada badna oo Nelson Mandela asal ahaan uu ka soo jeeday ay wakhtigaasi ahaayeen qaar yasan oo aan waxba loo ogolayn, Sannadkii 1942-kii ayuu Nelson Mandela wuxuu ku biiray Xisbiga weyn ee African National Congress (ANC), waxaanu noqday Maskaxdii ka danbaysay Aas-Aasitaanka Garab dhalinyaro oo ururka ANC yeesho, waxaana kala qayb qaatay Mandela Garabkaasi ka tirsan ururka ANC saaxiibadii Walter Sisulu, iyo oliver Tambo, iyo qaar kale oo farabadan.

Sannadkii 1948-kii ayaa waxaa ka dhacay dalka Koonfur AFrica doorasho guud oo ay ku tartamayeen labadii xisbi ee AFrikaner oo ahaa xisbigii cadaanka ahaa iyo National Congress oo ahaa xisbigii Madawga uuna ku jiray Nelson Mandela, waxaana halkaasi ku guulaystay xisbiga Afrikaner oo isticmaalaayey nidaamkii kala qoqobitaanka Bulshada "Racial Segregation" oo loo yaqaanay "apartheid policies".

Sannadahii 1952-kii ilaa 1955-kii Wuxuu Nelson Mandela Noqday Halyey qodax ku noqda Nidaamkii kala qoqobitaanka ee ay dejiyeen Cadaanku ee loo yaqaanay apetheid, nidaamkaasi oo aan wax xuquuq ah u ogolanayn dadka madawga ah ee tirada badan, wuxuuna sameeyey ficilo wax ku ool ah oo uu kaga soo horjeedsanaayey nidaamkaasi "anti apetheid", Wuxuuna Nelson Mandela olole balaadhan u gallay in baarlamaankii Koonfur Africa ee cadaanku maamulayeen la hor geeyo qaraar dhigaayey xorriyadda madawga oo la odhan jiray "Freedom Charter".

intii lagu jiray ololahii xorriyadda Madawga "Freedom Charter" wuxuu Mandela iyo Saaxiibkii Oliver oo ahaa sharci yaqaan ay sameeyeen Shariikad sharci "Law Firm" oo u adeegta dadka Madawga ah sidii ay xuquuqdooda u dhicisan lahayeen shariikadaasi oo la odhan jiray Mandela Olivera law firm waxaa ay ugu adeegi jireen dadka Madawga ah lacag raqiis ah iyo weliba lacag la'aan ugu yaraan sidii ay u soo dhicisan lahaayeen xuquuqdooda.

Sannadkii 5 December sannadkii 1956-kii ayaa waxaa xabsiga loo taxaabay Nelson Mandela iyo 150 Madaw ah oo uu ku jiro iyada oo lagu soo eedeeyey inay sameeyeen Khiyaamo qaran "treason" kiiskaasi lagu soo oogay Mandela iyo saaxiibadii oo socday ilaa sannadkii 1961-kii ayaa Mandela iyo saaxiibadii ay ogolaadeen aqbaleena Kiiskaasi waxaana laga sii daayey xabsiga.

XADHIGII IYO XABSIGII DHEERA EE NELSON MANDELA

Isla sannadkii laga soo daayey Xabsiga 1961-kii ayuu Nelson Mandela wuxuu Aas-Aasay Garab Military oo ka tirsan Xisbigii African National Congress "ANC" oo la odhan jiray "Umkhonto We Sizwe" oo macnaheedu tahay "Leebkii Qaranka" ama afka ingiriisiga loogu yaqaano "Spear of the nation" Wuxuu Mandela abaabulay weeraro jabhadeed oo uu la beegsan jiray ciidamadii cadaanka ahaa ee dalka Koonfur afrika, wuxuuna abaabulay hawlgalo military oo badan, wuxuu maal gelin ku sameeyey urur kale oo u ka mid ahaa baarlamaankii koonfur afrika, kaasi oo ujeedadiisu ahayd in dibada koonfur afrika la tago laguna baraarujiyo hogaamiyaasha kale ee afrikaanka ah sidii ay uga qayb qaadan lahaayeen halganka ay ku jiraan, Bishii August sannadkii 1962-kii ayaa waxaa xidhay Haayadda Sirdoonka maraykanka ee "CIA" Waxaanay ku eedeysay inuu si bilaa sharci ah oo aanay dawladiisu ogayn u wareegaayey dacalada dunida waxaana uu Mandela ku jiray xabsiga muddo shan sanno ah, intii uu Mandela ku jiray Xabsiga waxaa dawladda Koonfur afrika xabsiga u taxaabtay saaxiibo badan oo ka tirsana garabkii ciidameed ee ANC ee Umkhonto we sizwe.d

11 July Sannadkii 1963-kii Nelson Mandela iyo Saaxiib badan oo ay ka mid ahaayeen Axmed Katharada, Walter Sisulu, Govan Mbeki, Andrew Mlangani, Raymond Mhlaba, Elias Motsoaled, Walter Mkweyi (oo isagu baxsaday), iyo qaar badan oo kale ayaa la keenay Maxkamadda sare ee dalka koonfur afrika Lifesleaf farm, Rovania, dhamaantoodna waxaa lagu xukumay 12 July Sannadkii 1963-kii Xabsi Daayin (Madaxa ha ku furto) "Life in Prison" waxaana lagu eedeeyey inay wadeen shirqool militery oo lagu afganbiyayo dawladda cadaanka ah ee koonfur afrika iyo weliba inay ka soo horjeedaan nidaamka soo jireenka ah ee kala qoqobitaanka "anti apetheid".

Nelson Mandela oo lagu Sharfayo Dhalashada Canada
Madaxweynihii Madowga ahaa ee ugu horeeyeye ee K/Arika si xor ah u soo doortaan
Guji...

Sannadahii 80-meeyadii Mandela wuxuu xidhiidh la sameeyey qaar badan oo ku jira dawladda koonfur afrika isaga oo ku jiray xabsiga waxaana cidhifyada adduunka oo dhan ka bilawday banaanbaxyo iyo gaashanbuuraysi loogu baaqaayey dawladda Koonfur afrika inay soo dayso Nelson Mandela iyo in ay joojiso nidaamka apetheid ee kala qoqobitaanka bulshada.

Sannadkii 1980-kii ayuu Nelson Mandela wuxuu waraaq u soo diray Xisbiga ANC isaga oo ku jira Xabsiga waxaana kelmadahii ku qorna Waraaqdiisa ka mid ahaa

" Midooba!  hubka Gurta!  Dagaalka Wada! Badhtamaha Soofaha ficilada Midoobay iyo Halganka Dubaha ciidameed waynu kaga takhalusayna Nidaamka Apetheid!!

'UNITE! MOBILISE! FIGHT ON! BETWEEN THE ANVIL OF UNITED MASS ACTION AND THE HAMMER OF THE ARMED STRUGGLE WE SHALL CRUSH APARTHEID!

Bishii Febraury sannadkii 1985-kii ayaa Dawladdii Cadaanka ahayd ee Koonfur Afrika waxay u fidisay Mandela inuu aqbalo shuruudo inuu joojinaayo halgankiisa ka dhanka ah siyaasadaha kala qoqobitaanka bulshada ee Apatheid, Balse Mandela wuu diiday in uu fuliyo shuruudaasi si xabsiga looga sii daayo.

Sannadkii 1990-kii 11 February ayaa uu Nelson Mandela ka soo baxay Xabsigii uu gallay 11 July Sannadkii 1963-kii waxaana la odhan karaa waa qofkii Aadamaha ahaa ee ugu xabsi dheera jiritaanka nolosha aadamaha isaga oo xabsiga ku jiray muddo ku dhaw 30 sannadood, waxaana lagu soo daayey amarka madaxweynahii Koonfur afrika ee cadaanka ahaa F.W.DE KLERK, Sannadkii 1993-kii ayuu Nelson Mandela iyo Madaxweyne De Klerk waxay kala qaybsadeen abaalmarinta nabadda lagu bixiyo ee Nobel oo loogu abaal guday.

United States Vice President Al Gore meets with Mandela.
Nelson Mandela o Algore

Sannadkii 1991-kii ayaa Mandela waxaa loo magacaabay Gudoomiyaha xisbiga ANC, July sannadkii 1991-kii ilaa December 1997-kii ayuu Mandela Noqday Madaxweynahii ugu horeeyey ee madaw ahaa ee soo mara taariikhda dalka Koonfur AFrika, Bishii November ee sannadkii 1997-kii ayuu Madaxweyne Mandela ka nastay dhammaan hawlaha siyaasadda ee dalka Koonfur afrika.

Mandela waa Halyey maanta  dagaal kale kula jira Xanuunka saameeyey dunida ee HIV Aids, isaga iyo Saaxiibkii madaxweyne Clinton ee dalka maraykanka ayaa waxay wadaagaan gaashanbuuraysi lagula jiro la tacaalidda HIV AIDS, ka dib markii uu shaqada siyaasadda iskaga tegay Madaxweyne Mandela waxaa loogu abaal mariyey boqolaal abaal marinood oo gudaha koonfur afrika ah iyo weliba dacalada adduunka, waxaana ka mid ahaa Abaal marin uu ka hellay dunida  Boqorad Elizebeth da dalka ingiriiska, iyo Billada dahabka ah oo ay bixiyaan Madaxda dalka maraykanka oo uu siiyey Madaxweyne George W. Bush.

DHAMAAAAD

Qormadani waa tii koobaad oo ka hadlaysa Madaxda dunida oo dhan iyo taariikh nololeedkoodii ay soo mareen Shar iyo Kheyr labadaba.

QORMADII MOHAMED ABDI HASSAN (DIRIDHABA)

KARACHI, PAKISTAN.

E-mail:
diridhaba2001@hotmail.com
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Faafin: SomaliTalk.com | Dec 22, 2004
 
 

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