Warbixino iyo Doodo ku
Barnaamij isugu jira waraysiyo iyo dood oo uu qabtay Radio Codka Beesha
Soomaalida Minnesota ayaa looga hadlay xaalada Samsam Axmed Ducaale oo ku
WARBAAHINTA HARGEYSA IYO
TODDOBAADKAN VS SAMSAM
"Samsam Waxay Noo Cadaysay Inaanay Ilaalada & Askarta
Madaxweyne Xigeenku Waxa dhibaato ah u Geysan
Talaado dec 7, 2004
Bayaan Xubno ka mid ah Mudanayaasha hartiga Kaga jira Baarlamaanka Somaliland.
Hargeysa, (Haatuf) 4 xubnod oo ka tirsan labada gole ee Baarlamaanka ah xubnaha beelaha Harti (Warsan-geli & Dhul bahante) kaga jira Baarlamaanka Somaliland ayaa sheegay inaanay ilaalada madaxweyne ku xigeenku wax dhibaato iyo wax faraxumayn ah u geysan gabadha reer Boosaaso ee Samsam Axmed Ducaale oo ay xukuumadda Somaliland ku oogtay dacwad la xidhiidho basaasnimo ku wajahan Madaxweyne ku xigeenka, isla markaana waxay madaxweyne ku xigenka, Axmed Yuusuf Yaasiin ka codssadeen inuu gabadhaa xoriyadeeda u celiyo maadaama loo haysto eedo isaga khuseeya, waxayna mudanayashani sidaa ku sheegeen qoraal kooban oo ay saxaafadda u qaybiyeen.
Qareennada u doodaya dhinaca gabadha ayaa maxkamadda horteda kaga dacwiyey in la faraxumeeyay Samsam, isla markaana qaar kamid ah gododka wararka (Internet & Web-sites) ee Puntland iyo qaar kale oo ka mid ah kuwa Soomaalida kale ayaa lagu faafiyey sawirka gabadha (Samsam) iyo Madaxweyne kuxigeenka oo la is-barbar dhigay, taas oo ay dadka wararka faafiyey u macneeyeen inay gabadhaa faraxumeeyeen ilaalada madaxweyne ku xigeenku, iyadoo ay gabadhaasi markii u horaysay ee Hargeysa timi tagtay guriga uu degan yahay madaxweyne kuxigeenku.
Hase yeeshee afartan mudane waxay qoraalkooda ku sheegeen inaanay ilaalada madaxweyne ku xigeenku wax dhibaato ah iyo wax fara xumayn ah u geysan, tasna ay soo xaqiijiyeen. Sidaa darteed ay codsanayaan in la sii daayo, arinteedana la dhameeyo. Laakiin qoraalkaasi isaga oo dhamaystrian waxa uu u dhignaa siddan;
"Anaga oo ah xil-dhibaanada magacyadoodu hoos ku qoran yihiin waxaanu bayaankayaga kaga hadlaynaa gabadha magaceeda la yidhaahdo. Samsam Axmed Ducaale oo muddo dhawr bilood ah ku xidhnayd xabsiga dhexe ee Hargeysa, laguna eedeeyey basaasnimo.
Hase yeeshee waxaanu ogaanay gabadha yar ee Samsam ee loo haysto eedda basaasnimada inaya si khalad ah ku tagtay guriga madaxweyne kuxigeenka, balse aad loo buunbuuniyey, iyaduna ay sheeganayso in dhibaatooyin loo geystay.
Laakiin anaga (mudanayaasha), hogaan dhaqameedyo iyo wax garad kaleba waxay noo cadaysay in mudadii yarad ee ay la joogtay madaxweyne ku xigeenka iyo eheladiisa anaay ilaalada iyo askarta madaxweyne ku xigeenku u geysan wax dhibaato ah iyo wax waxyeelo ah toona.
ahay Mudane ka soo jeeda halka xudunta u ah xiisadda siyaasadeed ee
u dhaxaysa Somaliland iyo Puntland degaan kaygiina ma tagin Muddo
laba sanno ah waxaana ka socda dagaal, wax la iga weydiiyayna ma
jirto waxan ku micneeyana garan maayo dagaalkaas sida runtu tahay
kuma xog dhaamo habraha Qari-Jiqood (meel ka mid ah dhulka
Ogaadeeniya) jooga waxa ila mid ah Soddon iyo Lix xildhibaan oo ka
soo jeeda degaamadaas iyo masuuliyiin kale oo ku jira golaha
wasiirada iyo waaxyaha kale ee dawladda, waxa jirta siyaasad
gaamurtay oo kala xidhay masuuliyiintaas iyo masuuliyadoodii bal
hadaba is waydiintu waxay tahay masuuliyiinta ka soo jeeda
degaamadaasi waa maxay macnaha ay ugu fadhiyaan guud ahaan ummada
Reer somaliland gaar ahaan deegaamadoodii? "
C/risaaq Warsame Xayir
Sidaa awgeed madaxweyne kuxigeen waxaanu si sharaf iyo qaderin mudan kaaga codsanaynaa in gabadhaa xornimadeeda loo celiyo, isla markaana wixii xuquuq ah ee ay yeelato meel la saaro si ay arinteedu u dhamaato qaran ahaan iyo qof ahaanba" ayey ku soo xidheen qoraalkooda waxayna xubnaha mudanayasha ah ee qoraalkan soo saaray kala yihiin.
- 1. Mudane C/salaan Maxamed Siciid
- 2. Mudane Cabdi Faarax Ducaale
- 3. Mudane C/rishiid sh. C/laahi Aadan
- 4. Mudane Maxamed Xirsi Muslin
Wasiirka Cadaaladda Oo Jawaab Faahfaahsan Ka
Bixiyey Warbixintii Amnesty Ee Xadhiga Gabadha Reer Boosaaso
|Hooyadeed oo aan ku baraarugsanayn
iyo qareemadeedii oo xabsiga
ku jiraan ayaa isniintii December 6, 2004 maxkamada hargeysa markale
la saaray Samsam, sidaas waxaa sheegay ururka
Coalition for Justice and Peace in Somaliland,
qoraalka ururku waxa uu intaas ku daray in Omar oo ah dareealka la
xiray in uu sheegay in markii hore la sii daayey laakiin mar labaad
la xiray kaddib markii uu weydiistey in gaarigiisii laga jecejebiyey
loo soo gudo, taas oo uu sheegay in uu weydiistey kuxigeenka CID, Saeed Mohamed Absiye..
Waxaana qoraalku intaas raaciyey in laga yaabo in Zamsam iyo Omar la
xakumo Sabtida ay taariikhdu tahay December 11, 2004, kaddibna uu
cafis u fidin doono Daahir Riyaale... Guji...
December 7, 2004
Hargeysa, (Haatuf) – “Ururada
Madaxa banaan iyo bulshada rayidka kah waxaanu ku boorinaynaa inay iska
ilaaliyaan ku talax-tegida xoriyaadka iyo in laga digtoonaado is-hortaag
lagu sameeyo hir-gelinta cadaaladda”, Sidaa waxa yidhi wasiirka cadaaladda
ee dawlada Somaliland, Axmed Xasan Cali, isaga oo jawaab ka bixiyey war-bixin
ay hay’adda caalamiga ah ee Amnesty soo saartay dhowaan, warbixintaas oo ku
saabsanayd gabadha reer Boosaaso ee Samsam Axmed Ducaale ee ay dawlada
Somaliland ku eedaynayso falal basaas-nimo, Taas oo ay hay’adda Amnesty
warbixinteeda ku sheegtay in lagu sameeyey kufsi iyo kar-baash.
Hase yeeshee dhambaal qoraal ah oo uu shalay soo saaray wasiirka cadaaladda
Somaliland uu ku tilmaanay warbixinta Amnesty inay xambaarsan tahay
macluumaad aan xaqiiq ahayn, isla markaana waxa uu Tafaasiil ka bixiyey
dacwadda ka socota maxkamadda gobolka Hargeysa ee ku saabsan Samsam Axmed
Ducaale iyo wiil is-na la yidhaahdo Cumar Jaamac Warsame. Laakiin qoraalka
wasiirku isaga oo dhamaystiran waxa uu u qornaa sidan:
Samsam Maxamed Axmed iyo Cumar
Jaamac Warsame waxay ku eedaysan yihiin dacwad la xidhiidha argagixiso,
waana sababtaas ta looga qaaday xoriyadda oo loo xidhay. Laguma tilmaami
karo dembiilayaal ila inta arintooda maxkamaddu go’aan kama dambays ah oo ku
lid ah ka soo saarayo.
Hadii maxkamadda horteeda waxba kaga caddaan waayaan waxay xaq u leeyihiin
in xoriyadoodii loo soo celiyo sifo sharciga waafaqsan. Muddada ay dacwadu
ka socoto maxkamada waxay eedaysanayaashu ula siman yihiin xuquuqda uu
sharcigu siinayo dhamaan dadka sidooda oo kale dacwaduhu u yaalaan
2. Xaqsoor (Fair Trial):
1. Maxkamadaa gacanta ku
haysa dacwada Samsam Axmed Ducaale iyo Cumar Jaamac Warsame, waxay ka
mid tahay maxkmadaha caadiga ah ee dalka, kamana jirto Somaliland
maxkamado aan sharci ku dhisnayn oo si gaara dadka loogu cadaadiyo.
2. Iyagoo ula siman
eedaysanayaasha kale waxa loo oggol-yahay inay qabsadaan qareenada ay
iyagu doonaan, hadii ay qabsan kari waayaan qareeno waxa loo qabanayaa
qareen lacag la’aan ah (legal aid).
3. Dacwada labadan
eedaysane iyo kuwa kaleba waxaa lagu dhegaystaa meel u furan dadweynaha
iyo cidkasta oo danaynaysa dhegaysigeeda (Public hearing).
4. Kama jirto habka
ooggida dacwada ee nidaamka caddaaladda JSL in qofna lagu khasbo inuu
qirto dembi, sdaas darteed waxaa la sugayaa xaqa eedaysanaha ee ku
dhawaaqidda inuu dembiilaawe yahay (Right to a Presumption of
5. Waxa loo sugayaa xaqa
racfaan qaadashada (Right to Apeal), hadii wax laga tirsado go’aanka
maxkamadda derejada kowaad.
6. Waxaa loo oggol yahay
inay booqdaan qoysaskooda, qareenadooda iyo hay’adaha xuquuqda aadamaha.
Dhamaan qodobbadan aan kor ku soo sheegnay waxay tiirar aasaasiya u
yihiin xaqsoorka dacwadda (Fair Trial).
Da’ada Samsam Axmed Ducaale:
Inkastoo ay warbixinaha
Amnesty International iyo African Rights si iska hor-imanaysa ugu kala
tilmaameen da’da Samsam 16 iyo 17 sanno, haddana maxkamaddu waxay tixgelisay
da’da Samsam ka sheegatay maxkamadda horteeda oo ah inay jirto 18 sanno.
4. Arinta Ku Saabsan Jidh-Dilka Iyo Kufsiga:
Arinta ku saabsan jidh-dilka
iyo kufsiga ee ay ku andacoodeen eedaysanayaashu in ay u geysteen koox ka
mid ah saraakiisha ciidanka dembi-baadhista bileysku, markay soo gaadhay
maxkamadda garsooruhu iskama laahin arintan sida ku qoran warbixinta Amnesty
International ee wuxuu u diray baadhis caafimaad siday ka codsadeen
qareenada Samsam go’aankii dhakhtaradu soo saareena wuxuu ku soo baxay inaan
jidh-dl iyo kufsi loo geystay Samsam iyo Cumar midna jirin.
5. Arrinta Afarta Qareen ee xidhan
Xaqiiqo ahaan arinka ay ku xidhan yihiin afartii qareen ee u doodayay Samsam
Axmed ma khuseeyo wakiilnimadii ay ugu doodayeen dacwadda gabadha ee waxay
ka dhalatay muran dhexmaray iyaga iyo garsooraha oo ku saabsanaa nin ka mid
ahaa dadweynaha dacwada dhegaysanayey oo lagu eedeeyey inuu maxkamadda
dhexdeeda ku qoslay, ma jirin durid garsooraha lagaga codsanayo inuu ka
joogsado dacwadda ay wakiilka ka ahaayeen oo la mariyey nidaamka sharci ee
dalka in dacwadda loo gudbiyo maxkamadda racfaanka si ay u eegto.
6. Warbixinta Amnesty International:
a. Warbixinta ma
xambaarsana xaqiiqada la xidhiidha dacwada Samsam iyo dhaliisha ay u
jeediyeen garsoorka Somaliland ee waxay ku qotontaa warar
ku-tidhi-ku-teen ah oo suuqa laga ururiyey iyo kuwa laga helay dad cadow
u ah Somaliland oo iyagu shaqo ka dhigtay dhaleecaynta dawladda. Sida ka
muuqata warbixintooda Amnesty may samayn baadhistii looga baahnaa si ay
u gaadhaan runta dacwadda.
b. Waxay warbixintu si
toos ah ugu xad-gudbeysaa xuquuqda Samsam, taas oo marka dhaqanka
Soomaalida loo eego, sida looga faafiyey arinka kufsiga ilaa idaacadaha
saamayn weyn ku yeelan karto mustaqbalka Samsam, waayo waxa had iyo jeer
dhacda gabdhaha arintan kufsiga oo kale lagu tilmaamo ama run ha ahaato
ama been ha ahaatee waxay bulshada Soomaalida kala kulmaan dhaleecayn
c. Warbixintu sida loo
buun-buuniyey iyo sida loo faafiyey waxay dhalin kartaa in gabdho
yar-yar oo aan dembi lahayn loo geysto kufsi marka lagu xisaabtamo
dhaqanka Aargoosiga ee ku qotoma nidaamka qabaliga ee Soomaalida.
Bulshada Rayidka ah:
Waxay dawladda Somaliland
aqoonsan-tahay doorka ay bulshada rayidka ah iyo hay’adaha xuquuqda aadamuhu
ku leeyihiin hirgelinta caddaaladda, sidoo kale waxay dawladu si macno leh u
dhawraysaa xoriyadda aasaasiga ah ee dastuurka JSL, u jidaynayo
muwaadiniinta ka mid noqoshada, abaabulidda iyo abuurida ururo bulsho,
dhaqaale iyo siyaasadeed.
Hase yeeshee xoriyaddan oo
lagu talax-tegay ayay ka dhasheen ururo xad dhaaf ah oo ishor iyo daba
maraya, aanna lahayn waajibaadyo cad-cad oo ay ku hawlgalaan. Sidaas darteed
waxaan ku boorinayaa ururada madaxa banaan iyo guud ahaan bulshada rayidka
Inay iska ilaaliyaan ku
In la dhowro nidaamka
sharci ee dalka.
Iyo in laga digtoonaado
is-hortaag lagu sameeyo hirgelinta caddaaladda (Justice Performance).
Ugu dambayn waxaan u
mahad-celinayaa dawladaha iyo hay’adaha caalamiga ah ee naga kaaliya kor u
qaadida horumarinta xuquuqda aadamaha oo ay ka mid yihiin dawladaha
Maraykanka, Sweden, Norway, Ingiriiska yo Hay’adaha UNDP, UNICEF, UNHCR, SCF
(Britain, USA, Denmark), DRC, USAID, sidaa iyo kuwo kale.”
Afeef: Aragtida qoraalkan waxaa leh shabakada ku saxiixan
The Trial Of Zamzam Ahmed Dualeh Resumes But Justice Remains Elusive
Coalition for Justice and Peace in Somaliland — Hargeisa, Somaliland — 09
The Coalition for Justice and Peace in Somaliland
8 December 2004
For additional information, please contact Ibrahim Haji Musa: 429 251
The Trial of Zamzam Ahmed Dualeh Resumes But Justice Remains Elusive
The trial of Zamzam Ahmed Dualeh, the 17-year old girl whose detention and
trial has confronted the justice system in Somaliland with a series of
challenges, resumed at Hargeisa regional court on Monday, 6 December,
together with her co-defendant, Omer Jama Warsame. The trial had been
indefinitely suspended by the presiding judge, Abdirahman Jama Hayaan, on 24
November, after he had summarily sentenced the four defence lawyers to three
years in prison, allegedly for disturbance of the court. Four members of the
Coalition for Justice and Peace in Somaliland (CJPS), which has been
supporting the legal defence of the two detainees, attended Monday’s
hearing. In light of the grave and widespread irregularities which were,
again, apparent in the proceedings, the Coalition remains pessimistic, for
the reasons detailed below, that justice will be done.
The Coalition is concerned that the trial on Monday reflected a legal
strategy which effectively aims to remove the discussion from the courts to
the political arena, with serious implications for the justice system in
Somaliland. Having failed, despite repeated efforts, to provoke a
confrontation outside the court with their supporters, which might have
justified postponement of the trial, the government then moved to silence
their lawyers through imprisonment. Now, after a few hours where they had no
legal representation, no opportunity to call their own witnesses or to cross
examine those for the prosecution, Zamzam and Omer are to be judged on
Saturday 11 December. There are fears that they will indeed be sentenced on
Saturday, and that they may then be “pardoned” by President Dahir Rayale.
The Lack of Legal Representation
With their four lawyers in prison, Zamzam and Omer were left to defend
themselves, despite the gravity of the charges they face. According to the
judge, a letter had been sent to the two detainees, and their families,
informing them of the date of the hearing. But neither Zamzam nor Omer, who
have been incarcerated in Hargeisa central prison since September, had
received such notice and therefore had no opportunity to hire new lawyers.
Nor did their families know of the impending hearing. Zamzam’s mother and
Omer’s wife found out at the last minute through informal channels. The
Coalition itself had no prior knowledge of the trial as no information had
been given to the public.
The judge offered the detainees a choice: they could either act as their own
lawyers and allow the proceedings to continue, or the trial could be
postponed while they sought out new lawyers. Anxious to put their ordeal
behind them, and hoping for an early release, Zamzam and Omer chose to lead
their own defence.
Judge Hayaan continues to preside over the case, notwithstanding the
criticisms levelled at him following his decision to sentence Zamzam and
Omer’s lawyers. Moreover, the prosecutor, Yusuf Abdi Kahin, whose conduct
was questioned by the defence lawyers during the previous session, was once
again given a free hand to interrogate Zamzam and Omer—this time in the
absence of their lawyers. Despite the intimidating circumstances, including
the absence of the many relatives and supporters who had attended the court
previously, the two detainees held their ground and argued their case as
best as they could.
As in the past, the prosecution produced witnesses, for the most part CID
officers involved in interrogating the detainees, who repeated the claims
that Zamzam and Omer were part of a conspiracy to murder the Vice President,
had visited his residence for the purpose of surveillance, and that they had
become suspicious when Zamzam repeatedly changed her name, details and clan
identity. No new or material evidence was produced. No independent witnesses
came forward to lend support to the prosecution’s arguments. Their case
ended as it had begun, based entirely on the word of CID officers—some of
whom have been accused of torturing the detainees and of raping Zamzam—and
of the guards in charge of security at the Vice President’s home.
Both defendants refuted the prosecution’s charges and repeated their
previous accusations against the CID for torture, and Zamzam continued to
insist that she had suffered rape at the hands of six CID officers. As in
the past, she did not hesitate to point out that some of the men involved in
the rape included the prosecution’s witnesses. On this occasion, she singled
out, as she had done on 4 October, a young CID officer who was in the
witness stand. Desperate to leave prison, she made a strong appeal to the
judge for an early release.
Omer, who had driven Zamzam from Bosasso to Hargeisa in his vehicle for
hire, categorically rejected the charge that he had any involvement with
espionage and a conspiracy to assassinate the Vice President. He reminded
the court that he had in fact been released by the CID after two or three
days of questioning in mid-August, and had been re-arrested and charged only
after he demanded that the deputy head of the CID, Saeed Mohamed Absiye, who
had used his car and damaged the engine, compensate him for his losses.
He related how he had returned to CID headquarters in search of his car
after his release and was told that the deputy head of the CID had the keys.
Accompanied by a soldier and a mechanic, the car was taken from the CID
compound to a garage where the engine was found to be faulty. Omer said he
returned to the CID in the company of two parliamentarians to give him moral
support. They left empty-handed after an abusive encounter with Absiye. He
then, he added, went back on his own, at which point Absiye threatened to
have him arrested if he continued to speak about the car. He was, he said,
given a serious beating and hand-cuffed, after which he was then driven to
Hargeisa central police station where Absiye instructed the police to give
him the maximum punishment, which meant that he was held in isolation,
denied access and even food for a certain period.
Saeed Mohamed Absiye was due to testify in court for the prosecution on
Monday. The hearing was in fact suspended for a while to give him the chance
to attend, but he failed to turn up.
Omer told the court that he believes the charges were fabricated to cover
up: (1) the injuries he has suffered from the torture; (2) the damage to his
car and (3) to divert attention from the circumstances of his re-arrest and
long period of imprisonment.
A Denial of Justice
The defendants have not yet had a chance to call a single witness to the
stand. All the hearings to date have been devoted to prosecution witnesses.
And on Monday, with their lawyers behind bars, and no opportunity to prepare
their own defence in advance, they were left in a position of extreme
vulnerability. The government has said that their lawyers will have their
appeal heard on Thursday, and that the verdict on Zamzam and Omer will be
delivered on Saturday. Even if their lawyers win their appeal and are
released, there are no further opportunities to put forth arguments, since
Saturday is merely to hear the verdict.
When Omer and Zamzam asked the judge about their own complaints against the
CID, he told them to “write a letter.” The prosecutor himself pointed out
that they are not allowed to have pens and paper in prison. Nor are they
allowed to talk to visitors in private who could then assist them in
composing such a letter. The judge simply repeated the suggestion that they
should record their complaints in writing. Yesterday, 7 December, the judge,
Hayaan, wrote a letter, a copy of which was given to Zamzam’s mother, in
which he instructed the head of the central prison to type up the letter
“which they will compose themselves”, a suggestion that has done little to
reassure their families.
The Judge and the Prosecutor
If Somaliland is to improve its justice system, as the members of the
Coalition believe it can and must, we urge the Government of Somaliland to
address impediments to a fair trial. In this context, we regret the failure
of the Chief Justice to respond to the calls which have been made by,
amongst others, the detained lawyers, for the disqualification of judge
Hayaan from the case, and the removal of the prosecutor, Yusuf Abdi Kahin.
Once again, the Coalition reiterates the calls for the removal of the judge
and prosecutor from the case given the consistent and overwhelming proof of
the necessary lack of professional ethics. In the case of the judge, his
partiality and subservience to the prosecution, which members of the
Coalition have witnessed repeatedly, is grounds for transferring the case to
What is at Stake?
The Coalition for Justice and Peace in Somaliland has been strongly
criticised by some within the Government of Somaliland, by sections of the
media in Somaliland, and even by some members of civic groups, for
attracting “negative publicity” for Somaliland, and thereby damaging its
As individuals and organizations concerned about the promotion of justice,
accountability, transparency and peace in Somaliland, we regard it as our
civic and moral responsibility as citizens of Somaliland, and our duty as
human beings, to try and correct injustice in whatever guise it appears, no
matter how difficult and discouraging the challenge might be. Far from
jeopardising the future of Somaliland, we believe that we are making a vital
and constructive contribution in ensuring that it is being built on solid
foundations of which we can all be proud, and which can serve us all, in the
years to come. We are concerned that injustices and abuses in themselves
constitute a threat to the stability of Somaliland.
A Question of Individual Responsibility
The Coalition has consistently emphasised the importance of a full
investigation, a fair trial for Zamzam and Omer, justice for all concerned
and the principle of individual culpability. It is clear to us that serious
mistakes have been made in the administration of justice, and within the
CID, and these mistakes are the responsibility of particular individuals.
Zamzam and Omer have also made allegations about torture, and rape in the
case of Zamzam, against specific officers within the CID force. Those in
charge of the administration of justice, and of the police force, should
investigate these accusations, openly and fairly, and take the necessary
corrective action for the sake of justice, to distance their institutions
from the errors of certain employees and to safeguard the credibility of the
offices which have been entrusted to them. When they fail to do so, it is
inevitable that the blame will be generalised, to the detriment of
Somaliland now, and in the future.
What Can be Done?
To move the process of justice forward, the Coalition for Justice and Peace
is putting forward the following recommendations:
- A meaningful trial must be organized immediately in which Zamzam and Omer
have legal representation and the opportunity to cross examine witnesses.
- Their defence lawyers must be released immediately and unconditionally.
- The allegations of rape and torture must be urgently and thoroughly
investigated and the findings made public. If the allegations of rape are
substantiated, the judicial authorities in Somaliland will have the
opportunity to set a new standard by bringing a prosecution for rape against
- Both the judge, Abdirahman Jama Hayaan, and the prosecutor, Yusuf Abdi
Kahin, who have lost credibility on the basis of their performance to date,
should be replaced with immediate effect.
The Coalition for Justice and Peace in Somaliland, formed recently, brings
together organizations and individuals that share a common interest in
promoting justice, peace, human rights, the culture of dialogue and the
establishment of democratic institutions in Somaliland.
Afeef: Aragtida qoraalkan waxaa leh qoraaga ku saxiixan
Faafin: SomaliTalk.com | Dec
Kulaabo bogga www.SomaliTalk.com